Epivir tablet, film coated

Recent major changes

Dosage and Administration, Pediatric Patients (2.2)February 2008

Boxed warning section

Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues alone or in combination, including lamivudine and other antiretrovirals. Suspend treatment if clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity occur [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and have discontinued EPIVIR. Hepatic function should be monitored closely with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in patients who discontinue EPIVIR and are co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV. If appropriate, initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

EPIVIR Tablets and Oral Solution (used to treat HIV-1 infection) contain a higher dose of the active ingredient (lamivudine) than EPIVIR-HBV ®Tablets and Oral Solution (used to treat chronic HBV infection). Patients with HIV-1 infection should receive only dosage forms appropriate for treatment of HIV-1 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] .

Indications & usage

EPIVIR is a nucleoside analogue indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. Limitation of use: The dosage of this product is for HIV-1 and not for HBV.

Dosage & administration

  • Adults and adolescents >16years of age: 300mg daily, administered as either 150mg twice daily or 300mg once daily. (2.1)
  • Pediatric patients 3months up to 16years of age: Dosage should be based on body weight. (2.2)
  • Patients With Renal Impairment: Doses of EPIVIR must be adjusted in accordance with renal function. (2.3)

The recommended oral dose of EPIVIR in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents >16years of age is 300mg daily, administered as either 150mg twice daily or 300mg once daily, in combination with other antiretroviral agents. If lamivudine is administered to a patient infected with HIV-1 and HBV, the dosage indicated for HIV-1 therapy should be used as part of an appropriate combination regimen [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

The recommended oral dose of EPIVIR Oral Solution in HIV-1-infected pediatric patients 3months to 16years of age is 4mg/kg twice daily (up to a maximum of 150mg twice a day), administered in combination with other antiretroviral agents.

EPIVIR is also available as a scored tablet for HIV-1-infected pediatric patients who weigh 14kg and for whom a solid dosage form is appropriate. Before prescribing EPIVIR Tablets, children should be assessed for the ability to swallow tablets. If a child is unable to reliably swallow EPIVIR Tablets, the oral solution formulation should be prescribed. The recommended oral dosage of EPIVIR Tablets for HIV-1-infected pediatric patients is presented in Table1.

Table 1. Dosing Recommendations for EPIVIR Tablets in Pediatric Patients

Weight

(kg)
Dosage Regimen Using Scored 150-mg Tablet

Total Daily Dose

AM Dose PM Dose
14 to 21 tablet (75mg) tablet (75mg) 150mg
>21 to <30 tablet (75mg) 1 tablet (150mg) 225mg
30 1 tablet (150mg) 1 tablet (150mg) 300mg

Dosing of EPIVIR is adjusted in accordance with renal function. Dosage adjustments are listed in Table2 [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Table 2. Adjustment of Dosage of EPIVIR in Adults and Adolescents (30kg) in Accordance With Creatinine Clearance
Creatinine Clearance (mL/min) Recommended Dosage of EPIVIR
50 150mg twice daily or 300mg once daily
30-49 150mg once daily
15-29 150mg first dose, then 100mg once daily
5-14 150mg first dose, then 50mg once daily
<5 50mg first dose, then 25mg once daily

No additional dosing of EPIVIR is required after routine (4-hour) hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

Although there are insufficient data to recommend a specific dose adjustment of EPIVIR in pediatric patients with renal impairment, a reduction in the dose and/or an increase in the dosing interval should be considered.

Dosage forms & strengths

  • EPIVIR Scored Tablets

    150mg, are white, diamond-shaped, scored, film-coated tablets debossed with GX CJ7 on both sides.

  • EPIVIR Tablets

    300mg, are gray, modified diamond-shaped, film-coated tablets engraved with GX EJ7 on one side and plain on the reverse side.

  • EPIVIR Oral Solution

    A clear, colorless to pale yellow, strawberry-banana flavored liquid, containing 10mg of lamivudine per 1mL.

Contraindications

EPIVIR Tablets and Oral Solution are contraindicated in patients with previously demonstrated clinically significant hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis) to any of the components of the products.

Warnings and precautions

  • Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis: Reported with the use of nucleoside analogues. Suspend treatment if clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatoxicity occur. (5.1)
  • Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis: Reported in patients who are co-infected with hepatitis B virus and HIV-1 and discontinued EPIVIR. Monitor hepatic function closely in these patients and, if appropriate, initiate anti-hepatitis B treatment. (5.2)
  • Patients with HIV-1 infection should receive only dosage forms of EPIVIR appropriate for treatment of HIV-1. (5.2)
  • Co-infected HIV-1/HBV Patients: Emergence of lamivudine-resistant HBV variants associated with lamivudine-containing antiretroviral regimens has been reported. (5.2)
  • Emtricitabine should not be administered concomitantly with lamivudine-containing products. (5.3)
  • Hepatic decompensation (some fatal) has occurred in HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients receiving interferon and ribavirin-based regimens. Monitor for treatment-associated toxicities. Discontinue EPIVIR as medically appropriate and consider dose reduction or discontinuation of interferon alfa, ribavirin, or both. (5.4)
  • Pancreatitis: Use with caution in pediatric patients with a history of pancreatitis or other significant risk factors for pancreatitis. Discontinue treatment as clinically appropriate. (5.5)
  • Immune reconstitution syndrome (5.6) and redistribution/accumulation of body fat (5.7) have been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy.

Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues alone or in combination, including lamivudine and other antiretrovirals. A majority of these cases have been in women. Obesity and prolonged nucleoside exposure may be risk factors. Particular caution should be exercised when administering EPIVIR to any patient with known risk factors for liver disease; however, cases also have been reported in patients with no known risk factors. Treatment with EPIVIR should be suspended in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked transaminase elevations).

Posttreatment Exacerbations of Hepatitis:In clinical trials in non-HIV-1-infected patients treated with lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B, clinical and laboratory evidence of exacerbations of hepatitis have occurred after discontinuation of lamivudine. These exacerbations have been detected primarily by serum ALT elevations in addition to re-emergence of HBV DNA. Although most events appear to have been self-limited, fatalities have been reported in some cases. Similar events have been reported from postmarketing experience after changes from lamivudine-containing HIV-1 treatment regimens to non-lamivudine-containing regimens in patients infected with both HIV-1 and HBV. The causal relationship to discontinuation of lamivudine treatment is unknown. Patients should be closely monitored with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months after stopping treatment. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether re-initiation of lamivudine alters the course of posttreatment exacerbations of hepatitis.

Important Differences Among Lamivudine-Containing Products:EPIVIR Tablets and Oral Solution contain a higher dose of the same active ingredient (lamivudine) than EPIVIR-HBV Tablets and EPIVIR-HBV Oral Solution. EPIVIR-HBV was developed for patients with chronic hepatitis B. The formulation and dosage of lamivudine in EPIVIR-HBV are not appropriate for patients co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV. Safety and efficacy of lamivudine have not been established for treatment of chronic hepatitisB in patients co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV. If treatment with EPIVIR-HBV is prescribed for chronic hepatitis B for a patient with unrecognized or untreated HIV-1 infection, rapid emergence of HIV-1 resistance is likely to result because of the subtherapeutic dose and the inappropriateness of monotherapy HIV-1 treatment. If a decision is made to administer lamivudine to patients co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV, EPIVIR Tablets, EPIVIR Oral Solution, COMBIVIR ®(lamivudine/zidovudine) Tablets, EPZICOM ®(abacavir sulfate and lamivudine) Tablets, or TRIZIVIR ®(abacavir sulfate, lamivudine, and zidovudine) Tablets should be used as part of an appropriate combination regimen.

Emergence of Lamivudine-Resistant HBV:In nonHIV-1-infected patients treated with lamivudine for chronic hepatitisB, emergence of lamivudine-resistant HBV has been detected and has been associated with diminished treatment response (see full prescribing information for EPIVIR-HBV for additional information). Emergence of hepatitisB virus variants associated with resistance to lamivudine has also been reported in HIV-1-infected patients who have received lamivudine-containing antiretroviral regimens in the presence of concurrent infection with hepatitisB virus.

EPIVIR should not be administered concomitantly with other lamivudine-containing products including EPIVIR-HBV Tablets, EPIVIR Oral Solution, COMBIVIR (lamivudine/zidovudine) Tablets, EPZICOM (abacavir sulfate and lamivudine) Tablets, or TRIZIVIR (abacavir sulfate, lamivudine, and zidovudine) or emtricitabine-containing products, including ATRIPLA ®(efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir), EMTRIVA ®(emtricitabine), or TRUVADA ®(emtricitabine and tenofovir).

Invitro studies have shown ribavirin can reduce the phosphorylation of pyrimidine nucleoside analogues such as lamivudine. Although no evidence of a pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interaction (e.g., loss of HIV-1/HCV virologic suppression) was seen when ribavirin was coadministered with lamivudine in HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], hepatic decompensation (some fatal) has occurred in HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 and interferon alfa with or without ribavirin. Patients receiving interferon alfa with or without ribavirin and EPIVIR should be closely monitored for treatment-associated toxicities, especially hepatic decompensation. Discontinuation of EPIVIR should be considered as medically appropriate. Dose reduction or discontinuation of interferon alfa, ribavirin, or both should also be considered if worsening clinical toxicities are observed, including hepatic decompensation (e.g., Child-Pugh >6). See the complete prescribing information for interferon and ribavirin.

In pediatric patients with a history of prior antiretroviral nucleoside exposure, a history of pancreatitis, or other significant risk factors for the development of pancreatitis, EPIVIR should be used with caution. Treatment with EPIVIR should be stopped immediately if clinical signs, symptoms, or laboratory abnormalities suggestive of pancreatitis occur [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including EPIVIR. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune system responds may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections (such as Mycobacterium aviuminfection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jiroveciipneumonia [PCP], or tuberculosis), which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.

Redistribution/accumulation of body fat including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and cushingoid appearance have been observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are currently unknown. A causal relationship has not been established.

Adverse reactions

  • The most common reported adverse reactions (incidence 15%) in adults were headache, nausea, malaise and fatigue, nasal signs and symptoms, diarrhea, and cough. (6.1)
  • The most common reported adverse reactions (incidence 15%) in pediatric patients were fever and cough. (6.1)

    To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact GlaxoSmithKline at 1-888-825-5249 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

  • Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
  • Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
  • Hepatic decompensation in patients co-infected with HIV-1 and Hepatitis C [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
  • Pancreatitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adults - Clinical Trials in HIV-1:The safety profile of EPIVIR in adults is primarily based on 3,568 HIV-1-infected patients in 7clinical trials.

The most common adverse reactions are headache, nausea, malaise, fatigue, nasal signs and symptoms, diarrhea and cough.

Selected clinical adverse reactions in 5% of patients during therapy with EPIVIR 150mg twice daily plus RETROVIR ®200mg 3times daily for up to 24weeks are listed in Table3.

Table 3. Selected Clinical Adverse Reactions (5% Frequency) in Four Controlled Clinical Trials (NUCA3001, NUCA3002, NUCB3001, NUCB3002)
Adverse Reaction

EPIVIR 150 mg Twice Daily plus RETROVIR

(n = 251)

RETROVIR a

(n = 230)
Body as a Whole
Headache

35%

27%

Malaise & fatigue

27%

23%

Fever or chills

10%

12%

Digestive
Nausea

33%

29%

Diarrhea

18%

22%

Nausea & vomiting

13%

12%

Anorexia and/or decreased appetite

10%

7%

Abdominal pain

9%

11%

Abdominal cramps

6%

3%

Dyspepsia

5%

5%

Nervous System
Neuropathy

12%

10%

Insomnia & other sleep disorders

11%

7%

Dizziness

10%

4%

Depressive disorders

9%

4%

Respiratory
Nasal signs & symptoms

20%

11%

Cough

18%

13%

Skin
Skin rashes

9%

6%

Musculoskeletal
Musculoskeletal pain

12%

10%

Myalgia

8%

6%

Arthralgia

5%

5%

aEither zidovudine monotherapy or zidovudine in combination with zalcitabine.

Pancreatitis:Pancreatitis was observed in 9 out of 2,613adult patients (0.3%) who received EPIVIR in controlled clinical trials EPV20001, NUCA3001, NUCB3001, NUCA3002, NUCB3002, and NUCB3007 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

EPIVIR 300mg Once Daily:The types and frequencies of clinical adverse reactions reported in patients receiving EPIVIR 300mg once daily or EPIVIR 150mg twice daily (in 3-drug combination regimens in EPV20001 and EPV40001) for 48weeks were similar.

Selected laboratory abnormalities observed during therapy are summarized in Table4.

Table 4. Frequencies of Selected Grade 3-4 Laboratory Abnormalities in Adults in Four 24-Week Surrogate Endpoint Studies (NUCA3001, NUCA3002, NUCB3001, NUCB3002) and a Clinical Endpoint Study (NUCB3007)

Test

(Threshold Level)

24-Week Surrogate Endpoint

Studies a

Clinical Endpoint

Study a

EPIVIR plus

RETROVIR

RETROVIR b

EPIVIR plus

Current Therapy

Placebo plus

Current Therapy c

Absolute neutrophil count (<750/mm 3)

7.2%

5.4%

15%

13%

Hemoglobin (<8.0g/dL)

2.9%

1.8%

2.2%

3.4%

Platelets (<50,000/mm 3)

0.4%

1.3%

2.8%

3.8%

ALT (>5.0 x ULN)

3.7%

3.6%

3.8%

1.9%

AST (>5.0 x ULN)

1.7%

1.8%

4.0%

2.1%

Bilirubin (>2.5 x ULN)

0.8%

0.4%

ND

ND

Amylase (>2.0 x ULN)

4.2%

1.5%

2.2%

1.1%

aThe median duration on study was 12months.
bEither zidovudine monotherapy or zidovudine in combination with zalcitabine.
cCurrent therapy was either zidovudine, zidovudine plus didanosine, or zidovudine plus zalcitabine.
ULN=Upper limit of normal.
ND=Not done.

The frequencies of selected laboratory abnormalities reported in patients receiving EPIVIR 300mg once daily or EPIVIR 150mg twice daily (in 3-drug combination regimens in EPV20001 and EPV40001) were similar.

Pediatric Patients Clinical Trials in HIV-1:EPIVIR Oral Solution has been studied in 638pediatric patients 3months to 18years of age in 3clinical trials.

Selected clinical adverse reactions and physical findings with a 5% frequency during therapy with EPIVIR 4mg/kg twice daily plus RETROVIR 160mg/m 23times daily in therapy-naive (56days of antiretroviral therapy) pediatric patients are listed in Table 5.

Table 5. Selected Clinical Adverse Reactions and Physical Findings (5% Frequency) in Pediatric Patients in Study ACTG300

Adverse Reaction

EPIVIR plus

RETROVIR

(n = 236)

Didanosine

(n = 235)

Body as a Whole

Fever

25%

32%

Digestive

Hepatomegaly

11%

11%

Nausea & vomiting

8%

7%

Diarrhea

8%

6%

Stomatitis

6%

12%

Splenomegaly

5%

8%

Respiratory

Cough

15%

18%

Abnormal breath sounds/wheezing

7%

9%

Ear, Nose, and Throat

Signs or symptoms of ears a

7%

6%

Nasal discharge or congestion

8%

11%

Other

Skin rashes

12%

14%

Lymphadenopathy

9%

11%

aIncludes pain, discharge, erythema, or swelling of an ear.

Pancreatitis:Pancreatitis, which has been fatal in some cases, has been observed in antiretroviral nucleoside-experienced pediatric patients receiving EPIVIR alone or in combination with other antiretroviral agents. In an open-label dose-escalation study (NUCA2002), 14patients (14%) developed pancreatitis while receiving monotherapy with EPIVIR. Three of these patients died of complications of pancreatitis. In a second open-label study (NUCA2005), 12patients (18%) developed pancreatitis. In Study ACTG300, pancreatitis was not observed in 236patients randomized to EPIVIR plus RETROVIR. Pancreatitis was observed in 1patient in this study who received open-label EPIVIR in combination with RETROVIR and ritonavir following discontinuation of didanosine monotherapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

Paresthesias and Peripheral Neuropathies:Paresthesias and peripheral neuropathies were reported in 15patients (15%) in Study NUCA2002, 6patients (9%) in Study NUCA2005, and 2patients (<1%) in Study ACTG300.

Selected laboratory abnormalities experienced by therapy-naive (56days of antiretroviral therapy) pediatric patients are listed in Table6.

Table 6. Frequencies of Selected Grade 3-4 Laboratory Abnormalities in Pediatric Patients in Study ACTG300

Test

(Threshold Level)

EPIVIR plus

RETROVIR

Didanosine

Absolute neutrophil count (<400/mm 3)

8%

3%

Hemoglobin (<7.0 g/dL)

4%

2%

Platelets (<50,000/mm 3)

1%

3%

ALT (>10 x ULN)

1%

3%

AST (>10 x ULN)

2%

4%

Lipase (>2.5 x ULN)

3%

3%

Total Amylase (>2.5 x ULN)

3%

3%

ULN=Upper limit of normal.

Neonates - Clinical Trials in HIV-1:Limited short-term safety information is available from 2small, uncontrolled studies in South Africa in neonates receiving lamivudine with or without zidovudine for the first week of life following maternal treatment starting at Week38 or 36 of gestation [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Selected adverse reactions reported in these neonates included increased liver function tests, anemia, diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, hypoglycemia, jaundice and hepatomegaly, rash, respiratory infections, and sepsis; 3neonates died (1from gastroenteritis with acidosis and convulsions, 1 from traumatic injury, and 1 from unknown causes). Two other nonfatal gastroenteritis or diarrhea cases were reported, including 1with convulsions; 1infant had transient renal insufficiency associated with dehydration. The absence of control groups limits assessments of causality, but it should be assumed that perinatally exposed infants may be at risk for adverse reactions comparable to those reported in pediatric and adult HIV-1-infected patients treated with lamivudine-containing combination regimens. Long-term effects of in utero and infant lamivudine exposure are not known.

In addition to adverse reactions reported from clinical trials, the following adverse reactions have been reported during postmarketing use of EPIVIR. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These reactions have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to lamivudine.

Body as a Whole:Redistribution/accumulation of body fat [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

Endocrine and Metabolic:Hyperglycemia.

General:Weakness.

Hemic and Lymphatic:Anemia (including pure red cell aplasia and severe anemias progressing on therapy).

Hepatic and Pancreatic:Lactic acidosis and hepatic steatosis, posttreatment exacerbation of hepatitis B [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)].

Hypersensitivity:Anaphylaxis, urticaria.

Musculoskeletal:Muscle weakness, CPK elevation, rhabdomyolysis.

Skin:Alopecia, pruritus.

Drug interactions

Lamivudine is predominantly eliminated in the urine by active organic cationic secretion. The possibility of interactions with other drugs administered concurrently should be considered, particularly when their main route of elimination is active renal secretion via the organic cationic transport system (e.g., trimethoprim). No data are available regarding interactions with other drugs that have renal clearance mechanisms similar to that of lamivudine.

Although no evidence of a pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interaction (e.g., loss of HIV-1/HCV virologic suppression) was seen when ribavirin was coadministered with lamivudine in HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients, hepatic decompensation (some fatal) has occurred in HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 and interferon alfa with or without ribavirin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Lamivudine and zalcitabine may inhibit the intracellular phosphorylation of one another. Therefore, use of lamivudine in combination with zalcitabine is not recommended.

No change in dose of either drug is recommended. There is no information regarding the effect on lamivudine pharmacokinetics of higher doses of TMP/SMX such as those used to treat PCP.

A drug interaction study showed no clinically significant interaction between EPIVIR and zidovudine.

Use in specific populations

  • Pregnancy: Physicians are encouraged to register patients in the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry by calling 1-800-258-4263. (8.1)

Revised: April 2009
EPV:2PI

Pregnancy Category C. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of EPIVIR in pregnant women. Animal reproduction studies in rats and rabbits revealed no evidence of teratogenicity. Increased early embryolethality occurred in rabbits at exposure levels similar to those in humans. EPIVIR should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Lamivudine pharmacokinetics were studied in pregnant women during 2clinical studies conducted in South Africa. The study assessed pharmacokinetics in: 16women at 36weeks gestation using 150mg lamivudine twice daily with zidovudine, 10women at 38weeks gestation using 150mg lamivudine twice daily with zidovudine, and 10women at 38weeks gestation using lamivudine 300mg twice daily without other antiretrovirals. These studies were not designed or powered to provide efficacy information. Lamivudine pharmacokinetics in pregnant women were similar to those seen in non-pregnant adults and in postpartum women. Lamivudine concentrations were generally similar in maternal, neonatal, and umbilical cord serum samples. In a subset of subjects, lamivudine amniotic fluid specimens were collected following natural rupture of membranes. Amniotic fluid concentrations of lamivudine were typically 2times greater than maternal serum levels and ranged from 1.2 to 2.5mcg/mL (150mg twice daily) and 2.1 to 5.2mcg/mL (300mg twice daily). It is not known whether risks of adverse events associated with lamivudine are altered in pregnant women compared with other HIV-1-infected patients.

Animal reproduction studies performed at oral doses up to 130 and 60times the adult dose in rats and rabbits, respectively, revealed no evidence of teratogenicity due to lamivudine. Increased early embryolethality occurred in rabbits at exposure levels similar to those in humans. However, there was no indication of this effect in rats at exposure levels up to 35times those in humans. Based on animal studies, lamivudine crosses the placenta and is transferred to the fetus [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].

Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry:To monitor maternal-fetal outcomes of pregnant women exposed to lamivudine, a Pregnancy Registry has been established. Physicians are encouraged to register patients by calling 1-800-258-4263.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-1-infected mothers in the United States not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1 infection. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants and HIV-1 transmission, mothers should be instructed not to breastfeed if they are receiving lamivudine.

Lamivudine is excreted into human milk. Samples of breast milk obtained from 20mothers receiving lamivudine monotherapy (300mg twice daily) or combination therapy (150mg lamivudine twice daily and 300mg zidovudine twice daily) had measurable concentrations of lamivudine.

The safety and effectiveness of twice-daily EPIVIR in combination with other antiretroviral agents have been established in pediatric patients 3months and older [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), Clinical Studies (14.2)].

Clinical studies of EPIVIR did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. In particular, because lamivudine is substantially excreted by the kidney and elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, renal function should be monitored and dosage adjustments should be made accordingly [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Reduction of the dosage of EPIVIR is recommended for patients with impaired renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Overdosage

There is no known antidote for EPIVIR. One case of an adult ingesting 6g of EPIVIR was reported; there were no clinical signs or symptoms noted and hematologic tests remained normal. Two cases of pediatric overdose were reported in Study ACTG300. One case involved a single dose of 7mg/kg of EPIVIR; the second case involved use of 5mg/kg of EPIVIR twice daily for 30days. There were no clinical signs or symptoms noted in either case. Because a negligible amount of lamivudine was removed via (4-hour) hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, and automated peritoneal dialysis, it is not known if continuous hemodialysis would provide clinical benefit in a lamivudine overdose event. If overdose occurs, the patient should be monitored, and standard supportive treatment applied as required.

Description

EPIVIR (also known as 3TC) is a brand name for lamivudine, a synthetic nucleoside analogue with activity against HIV-1 and HBV. The chemical name of lamivudine is (2R,cis)-4-amino-1-(2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl)-(1H)-pyrimidin-2-one. Lamivudine is the (-)enantiomer of a dideoxy analogue of cytidine. Lamivudine has also been referred to as (-)2,3-dideoxy, 3-thiacytidine. It has a molecular formula of C 8H 11N 3O 3S and a molecular weight of 229.3. It has the following structural formula:

Epivir

Lamivudine is a white to off-white crystalline solid with a solubility of approximately 70mg/mL in water at 20C.

EPIVIR Tablets are for oral administration. Each scored 150-mg film-coated tablet contains 150mg of lamivudine and the inactive ingredients hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, sodium starch glycolate, and titanium dioxide.

Each 300-mg film-coated tablet contains 300mg of lamivudine and the inactive ingredients black iron oxide, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, sodium starch glycolate, and titanium dioxide.

EPIVIR Oral Solution is for oral administration. One milliliter (1mL) of EPIVIR Oral Solution contains 10mg of lamivudine (10mg/mL) in an aqueous solution and the inactive ingredients artificial strawberry and banana flavors, citric acid (anhydrous), methylparaben, propylene glycol, propylparaben, sodium citrate (dihydrate), and sucrose (200mg).

Clinical pharmacology

Lamivudine is an antiviral agent [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].

Pharmacokinetics in Adults:The pharmacokinetic properties of lamivudine have been studied in asymptomatic, HIV-1-infected adult patients after administration of single intravenous (IV) doses ranging from 0.25 to 8mg/kg, as well as single and multiple (twice-daily regimen) oral doses ranging from 0.25 to 10mg/kg.

The pharmacokinetic properties of lamivudine have also been studied as single and multiple oral doses ranging from 5mg to 600mg/day administered to HBV-infected patients.

The steady-state pharmacokinetic properties of the EPIVIR 300-mg tablet once daily for 7days compared with the EPIVIR 150-mg tablet twice daily for 7days were assessed in a crossover study in 60healthy volunteers. EPIVIR 300mg once daily resulted in lamivudine exposures that were similar to EPIVIR 150mg twice daily with respect to plasma AUC 24,ss; however, C max,sswas 66% higher and the trough value was 53% lower compared with the 150-mg twice-daily regimen. Intracellular lamivudine triphosphate exposures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also similar with respect to AUC 24,ssand C max24,ss; however, trough values were lower compared with the 150-mg twice-daily regimen. Inter-subject variability was greater for intracellular lamivudine triphosphate concentrations versus lamivudine plasma trough concentrations. The clinical significance of observed differences for both plasma lamivudine concentrations and intracellular lamivudine triphosphate concentrations is not known.

Absorption and Bioavailability:Lamivudine was rapidly absorbed after oral administration in HIV-1-infected patients. Absolute bioavailability in 12adult patients was 86%16% (meanSD) for the 150-mg tablet and 87%13% for the oral solution. After oral administration of 2mg/kg twice a day to 9adults with HIV-1, the peak serum lamivudine concentration (C max) was 1.50.5mcg/mL (meanSD). The area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) and C maxincreased in proportion to oral dose over the range from 0.25 to 10mg/kg.

The accumulation ratio of lamivudine in HIV-1-positive asymptomatic adults with normal renal function was 1.50 following 15days of oral administration of 2mg/kg twice daily.

Effects of Food on Oral Absorption:An investigational 25-mg dosage form of lamivudine was administered orally to 12asymptomatic, HIV-1-infected patients on 2occasions, once in the fasted state and once with food (1,099 kcal; 75grams fat, 34grams protein, 72grams carbohydrate). Absorption of lamivudine was slower in the fed state (T max: 3.21.3hours) compared with the fasted state (T max: 0.90.3hours); C maxin the fed state was 40%23% (meanSD) lower than in the fasted state. There was no significant difference in systemic exposure (AUC) in the fed and fasted states; therefore, EPIVIR Tablets and Oral Solution may be administered with or without food.

Distribution:The apparent volume of distribution after IV administration of lamivudine to 20patients was 1.30.4L/kg, suggesting that lamivudine distributes into extravascular spaces. Volume of distribution was independent of dose and did not correlate with body weight.

Binding of lamivudine to human plasma proteins is low (<36%). Invitro studies showed that over the concentration range of 0.1 to 100mcg/mL, the amount of lamivudine associated with erythrocytes ranged from 53% to 57% and was independent of concentration.

Metabolism:Metabolism of lamivudine is a minor route of elimination. In man, the only known metabolite of lamivudine is the trans-sulfoxide metabolite. Within 12hours after a single oral dose of lamivudine in 6HIV-1-infected adults, 5.2%1.4% (meanSD) of the dose was excreted as the trans-sulfoxide metabolite in the urine. Serum concentrations of this metabolite have not been determined.

Elimination:The majority of lamivudine is eliminated unchanged in urine by active organic cationic secretion. In 9healthy subjects given a single 300-mg oral dose of lamivudine, renal clearance was 199.756.9mL/min (meanSD). In 20HIV-1-infected patients given a single IV dose, renal clearance was 280.4 75.2mL/min (meanSD), representing 71%16% (meanSD) of total clearance of lamivudine.

In most single-dose studies in HIV-1-infected patients, HBV-infected patients, or healthy subjects with serum sampling for 24hours after dosing, the observed mean elimination half-life (t) ranged from 5 to 7hours. In HIV-1-infected patients, total clearance was 398.569.1mL/min (meanSD). Oral clearance and elimination half-life were independent of dose and body weight over an oral dosing range of 0.25 to 10mg/kg.

Special Populations: Renal Impairment:The pharmacokinetic properties of lamivudine have been determined in a small group of HIV-1-infected adults with impaired renal function (Table7).

Table 7. Pharmacokinetic Parameters (MeanSD) After a Single 300-mg Oral Dose of Lamivudine in 3Groups of Adults With Varying Degrees of Renal Function

Parameter

Creatinine Clearance Criterion

(Number of Subjects)

>60 mL/min

(n=6)

10-30 mL/min

(n=4)

<10 mL/min

(n=6)

Creatinine clearance (mL/min)

11114

288

62

C max(mcg/mL)

2.60.5

3.60.8

5.81.2

AUC (mcghr/mL)

11.01.7

48.019

15774

Cl/F (mL/min)

46476

11434

3611

Exposure (AUC), C max, and half-life increased with diminishing renal function (as expressed by creatinine clearance). Apparent total oral clearance (Cl/F) of lamivudine decreased as creatinine clearance decreased. T maxwas not significantly affected by renal function. Based on these observations, it is recommended that the dosage of lamivudine be modified in patients with renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].

Based on a study in otherwise healthy subjects with impaired renal function, hemodialysis increased lamivudine clearance from a mean of 64 to 88mL/min; however, the length of time of hemodialysis (4hours) was insufficient to significantly alter mean lamivudine exposure after a single-dose administration. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis have negligible effects on lamivudine clearance. Therefore, it is recommended, following correction of dose for creatinine clearance, that no additional dose modification be made after routine hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

It is not known whether lamivudine can be removed by continuous (24-hour) hemodialysis.

The effects of renal impairment on lamivudine pharmacokinetics in pediatric patients are not known.

Hepatic Impairment:The pharmacokinetic properties of lamivudine have been determined in adults with impaired hepatic function. Pharmacokinetic parameters were not altered by diminishing hepatic function; therefore, no dose adjustment for lamivudine is required for patients with impaired hepatic function. Safety and efficacy of lamivudine have not been established in the presence of decompensated liver disease.

Pediatric Patients:In Study NUCA2002, pharmacokinetic properties of lamivudine were assessed in a subset of 57HIV-1-infected pediatric patients (age range: 4.8months to 16years, weight range: 5to 66kg) after oral and IV administration of 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 20mg/kg/day. In the 9infants and children (range: 5months to 12years of age) receiving oral solution 4mg/kg twice daily (the usual recommended pediatric dose), absolute bioavailability was 66%26% (meanSD), which was less than the 86%16% (meanSD) observed in adults. The mechanism for the diminished absolute bioavailability of lamivudine in infants and children is unknown.

Systemic clearance decreased with increasing age in pediatric patients, as shown in Figure1.

Figure 1. Systemic Clearance (L/hrkg) of Lamivudine in Relation to Age

Epivir

After oral administration of lamivudine 4mg/kg twice daily to 11pediatric patients ranging from 4months to 14years of age, C maxwas 1.10.6mcg/mL and half-life was 2.00.6hours. (In adults with similar blood sampling, the half-life was 3.71hours.) Total exposure to lamivudine, as reflected by mean AUC values, was comparable between pediatric patients receiving an 8-mg/kg/day dose and adults receiving a 4-mg/kg/day dose.

Distribution of lamivudine into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was assessed in 38pediatric patients after multiple oral dosing with lamivudine. CSF samples were collected between 2 and 4hours postdose. At the dose of 8mg/kg/day, CSF lamivudine concentrations in 8patients ranged from 5.6% to 30.9% (meanSD of 14.2%7.9%) of the concentration in a simultaneous serum sample, with CSF lamivudine concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 0.3mcg/mL.

Limited, uncontrolled pharmacokinetic and safety data are available from administration of lamivudine (and zidovudine) to 36infants up to 1week of age in 2studies in South Africa. In these studies, lamivudine clearance was substantially reduced in 1-week-old neonates relative to pediatric patients (>3months of age) studied previously. There is insufficient information to establish the time course of changes in clearance between the immediate neonatal period and the age-ranges >3months old [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Geriatric Patients:The pharmacokinetics of lamivudine after administration of EPIVIR to patients over 65years of age have not been studied [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

Gender:There are no significant gender differences in lamivudine pharmacokinetics.

Race:There are no significant racial differences in lamivudine pharmacokinetics.

Drug Interactions: Interferon Alfa:There was no significant pharmacokinetic interaction between lamivudine and interferon alfa in a study of 19healthy male subjects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

Ribavirin:Invitro data indicate ribavirin reduces phosphorylation of lamivudine, stavudine, and zidovudine. However, no pharmacokinetic (e.g., plasma concentrations or intracellular triphosphorylated active metabolite concentrations) or pharmacodynamic (e.g., loss of HIV-1/HCV virologic suppression) interaction was observed when ribavirin and lamivudine (n=18), stavudine (n=10), or zidovudine (n=6) were coadministered as part of a multi-drug regimen to HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole:Lamivudine and TMP/SMX were coadministered to 14HIV-1-positive patients in a single-center, open-label, randomized, crossover study. Each patient received treatment with a single 300-mg dose of lamivudine and TMP 160mg/SMX 800mg once a day for 5days with concomitant administration of lamivudine 300mg with the fifth dose in a crossover design. Coadministration of TMP/SMX with lamivudine resulted in an increase of 43%23% (meanSD) in lamivudine AUC, a decrease of 29%13% in lamivudine oral clearance, and a decrease of 30%36% in lamivudine renal clearance. The pharmacokinetic properties of TMP and SMX were not altered by coadministration with lamivudine [see Drug Interactions (7.3)].

Zidovudine:No clinically significant alterations in lamivudine or zidovudine pharmacokinetics were observed in 12asymptomatic HIV-1-infected adult patients given a single dose of zidovudine (200mg) in combination with multiple doses of lamivudine (300mg q 12hr) [see Drug Interactions (7.4)].

Mechanism of Action:Intracellularly, lamivudine is phosphorylated to its active 5-triphosphate metabolite, lamivudine triphosphate (3TC-TP). The principal mode of action of 3TC-TP is the inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) via DNA chain termination after incorporation of the nucleotide analogue into viral DNA. 3TC-TP is a weak inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerases , , and .

Antiviral Activity:The antiviral activity of lamivudine against HIV-1 was assessed in a number of cell lines (including monocytes and fresh human peripheral blood lymphocytes) using standard susceptibility assays. EC 50values (50% effective concentrations) were in the range of 0.003 to 15M (1M=0.23mcg/mL). HIV-1 from therapy-naive subjects with no amino acid substitutions associated with resistance gave median EC 50values of 0.429M (range: 0.200 to 2.007M) from Virco (n=92 baseline samples from COLA40263) and 2.35M (1.37 to 3.68M) from Monogram Biosciences (n=135 baseline samples from ESS30009). The EC 50values of lamivudine against different HIV-1 clades (A-G) ranged from 0.001 to 0.120M, and against HIV-2 isolates from 0.003 to 0.120M in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Ribavirin (50M) decreased the anti-HIV-1 activity of lamivudine by 3.5fold in MT-4 cells. In HIV-1-infected MT-4 cells, lamivudine in combination with zidovudine at various ratios exhibited synergistic antiretroviral activity. Please see the full prescribing information for EPIVIR-HBV for information regarding the inhibitory activity of lamivudine against HBV.

Resistance:Lamivudine-resistant variants of HIV-1 have been selected in cell culture. Genotypic analysis showed that the resistance was due to a specific amino acid substitution in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase at codon 184 changing the methionine to either isoleucine or valine (M184V/I).

HIV-1 strains resistant to both lamivudine and zidovudine have been isolated from patients. Susceptibility of clinical isolates to lamivudine and zidovudine was monitored in controlled clinical trials. In patients receiving lamivudine monotherapy or combination therapy with lamivudine plus zidovudine, HIV-1 isolates from most patients became phenotypically and genotypically resistant to lamivudine within 12weeks. In some patients harboring zidovudine-resistant virus at baseline, phenotypic sensitivity to zidovudine was restored by 12weeks of treatment with lamivudine and zidovudine. Combination therapy with lamivudine plus zidovudine delayed the emergence of mutations conferring resistance to zidovudine.

Lamivudine-resistant HBV isolates develop substitutions (rtM204V/I) in the YMDD motif of the catalytic domain of the viral reverse transcriptase. rtM204V/I substitutions are frequently accompanied by other substitutions (rtV173L, rtL180M) which enhance the level of lamivudine resistance or act as compensatory mutations improving replication efficiency. Other substitutions detected in lamivudine-resistant HBV isolates include: rtL80I and rtA181T. Similar HBV mutants have been reported in HIV-1-infected patients who received lamivudine-containing antiretroviral regimens in the presence of concurrent infection with hepatitis B virus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Cross-Resistance:Lamivudine-resistant HIV-1 mutants were cross-resistant to didanosine (ddI) and zalcitabine (ddC). In some patients treated with zidovudine plus didanosine or zalcitabine, isolates resistant to multiple reverse transcriptase inhibitors, including lamivudine, have emerged.

Genotypic and Phenotypic Analysis of On-Therapy HIV-1 Isolates From Patients With Virologic Failure: Study EPV20001:Fifty-three of 554 (10%) patients enrolled in EPV20001 were identified as virological failures (plasma HIV-1 RNA level 400copies/mL) by Week 48. Twenty-eight patients were randomized to the lamivudine once-daily treatment group and 25 to the lamivudine twice-daily treatment group. The median baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA levels of patients in the lamivudine once-daily group and lamivudine twice-daily group were 4.9log 10copies/mL and 4.6log 10copies/mL, respectively.

Genotypic analysis of on-therapy isolates from 22patients identified as virologic failures in the lamivudine once-daily group showed that isolates from 0/22 patients contained treatment-emergent amino acid substitutions associated with zidovudine resistance (M41L, D67N, K70R, L210W, T215Y/F, or K219Q/E), isolates from 10/22 patients contained treatment-emergent amino acid substitutions associated with efavirenz resistance (L100I, K101E, K103N, V108I, or Y181C), and isolates from 8/22 patients contained a treatment-emergent lamivudine resistance-associated substitution (M184I or M184V).

Genotypic analysis of on-therapy isolates from patients (n=22) in the lamivudine twice-daily treatment group showed that isolates from 1/22 patients contained treatment-emergent zidovudine resistance substitutions, isolates from 7/22 contained treatment-emergent efavirenz resistance substitutions, and isolates from 5/22 contained treatment-emergent lamivudine resistance substitutions.

Phenotypic analysis of baseline-matched on-therapy HIV-1 isolates from patients (n=13) receiving lamivudine once daily showed that isolates from 12/13 patients were susceptible to zidovudine; isolates from 8/13 patients exhibited a 25- to 295-fold decrease in susceptibility to efavirenz, and isolates from 7/13 patients showed an 85- to 299-fold decrease in susceptibility to lamivudine.

Phenotypic analysis of baseline-matched on-therapy HIV-1 isolates from patients (n=13) receiving lamivudine twice daily showed that isolates from all 13 patients were susceptible to zidovudine; isolates from 3/13 patients exhibited a 21- to 342-fold decrease in susceptibility to efavirenz, and isolates from 4/13 patients exhibited a 29- to 159-fold decrease in susceptibility to lamivudine.

Study EPV40001:Fifty patients received zidovudine 300mg twice daily plus abacavir 300mg twice daily plus lamivudine 300mg once daily and 50patients received zidovudine 300mg plus abacavir 300mg plus lamivudine 150mg all twice daily. The median baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA levels for patients in the 2 groups were 4.79log 10copies/mL and 4.83log 10copies/mL, respectively. Fourteen of 50patients in the lamivudine once-daily treatment group and 9 of 50patients in the lamivudine twice-daily group were identified as virologic failures.

Genotypic analysis of on-therapy HIV-1 isolates from patients (n=9) in the lamivudine once-daily treatment group showed that isolates from 6patients had an abacavir and/or lamivudine resistance-associated substitution M184V alone. On-therapy isolates from patients (n=6) receiving lamivudine twice daily showed that isolates from 2patients had M184V alone, and isolates from 2 patients harbored the M184V substitution in combination with zidovudine resistance-associated amino acid substitutions.

Phenotypic analysis of on-therapy isolates from patients (n=6) receiving lamivudine once daily showed that HIV-1 isolates from 4patients exhibited a 32- to 53-fold decrease in susceptibility to lamivudine. HIV-1 isolates from these 6patients were susceptible to zidovudine.

Phenotypic analysis of on-therapy isolates from patients (n=4) receiving lamivudine twice daily showed that HIV-1 isolates from 1patient exhibited a 45-fold decrease in susceptibility to lamivudine and a 4.5-fold decrease in susceptibility to zidovudine.

Nonclinical toxicology

Long-term carcinogenicity studies with lamivudine in mice and rats showed no evidence of carcinogenic potential at exposures up to 10times (mice) and 58times (rats) those observed in humans at the recommended therapeutic dose for HIV-1 infection. Lamivudine was not active in a microbial mutagenicity screen or an invitro cell transformation assay, but showed weak invitro mutagenic activity in a cytogenetic assay using cultured human lymphocytes and in the mouse lymphoma assay. However, lamivudine showed no evidence of in vivo genotoxic activity in the rat at oral doses of up to 2,000mg/kg, producing plasma levels of 35to 45times those in humans at the recommended dose for HIV-1 infection. In a study of reproductive performance, lamivudine administered to rats at doses up to 4,000mg/kg/day, producing plasma levels 47 to 70times those in humans, revealed no evidence of impaired fertility and no effect on the survival, growth, and development to weaning of the offspring.

Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at orally administered doses up to 4,000mg/kg/day and 1,000mg/kg/day, respectively, producing plasma levels up to approximately 35times that for the adult HIV dose. No evidence of teratogenicity due to lamivudine was observed. Evidence of early embryolethality was seen in the rabbit at exposure levels similar to those observed in humans, but there was no indication of this effect in the rat at exposure levels up to 35times those in humans. Studies in pregnant rats and rabbits showed that lamivudine is transferred to the fetus through the placenta.

Clinical studies

The use of EPIVIR is based on the results of clinical studies in HIV-1-infected patients in combination regimens with other antiretroviral agents. Information from trials with clinical endpoints or a combination of CD4+ cell counts and HIV-1 RNA measurements is included below as documentation of the contribution of lamivudine to a combination regimen in controlled trials.

Clinical Endpoint Study:NUCB3007 (CAESAR) was a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing continued current therapy (zidovudine alone [62% of patients] or zidovudine with didanosine or zalcitabine [38% of patients]) to the addition of EPIVIR or EPIVIR plus an investigational non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), randomized 1:2:1. A total of 1,816HIV-1-infected adults with 25 to 250CD4+cells/mm 3(median=122cells/mm 3) at baseline were enrolled: median age was 36years, 87% were male, 84% were nucleoside-experienced, and 16% were therapy-naive. The median duration on study was 12months. Results are summarized in Table 8.

Table 8. Number of Patients (%) With at Least One HIV-1 Disease Progression Event or Death

Endpoint

Current Therapy

(n = 460)

EPIVIR plus

Current Therapy

(n = 896)

EPIVIR plus an

NNRTI aplus Current

Therapy

(n = 460)

HIV progression or death

90 (19.6%)

86 (9.6%)

41 (8.9%)

Death

27 (5.9%)

23 (2.6%)

14 (3.0%)

aAn investigational non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor not approved in the United States.

Surrogate Endpoint Studies: Dual Nucleoside Analogue Studies:Principal clinical trials in the initial development of lamivudine compared lamivudine/zidovudine combinations with zidovudine monotherapy or with zidovudine plus zalcitabine. These studies demonstrated the antiviral effect of lamivudine in a 2-drug combination. More recent uses of lamivudine in treatment of HIV-1 infection incorporate it into multiple-drug regimens containing at least 3antiretroviral drugs for enhanced viral suppression.

Dose Regimen Comparison Surrogate Endpoint Studies in Therapy-Naive Adults:EPV20001 was a multi-center, double-blind, controlled study in which patients were randomized 1:1 to receive EPIVIR 300mg once daily or EPIVIR 150mg twice daily, in combination with zidovudine 300mg twice daily and efavirenz 600mg once daily. A total of 554antiretroviral treatment-naive HIV-1-infected adults enrolled: male (79%), Caucasian (50%), median age of 35years, baseline CD4+ cell counts of 69 to 1,089cells/mm 3(median=362cells/mm 3), and median baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA of 4.66log 10copies/mL. Outcomes of treatment through 48weeks are summarized in Figure 2 and Table 9.

Figure 2. Virologic Response Through Week 48, EPV20001 ab(Intent-to-Treat)

Epivir

aRoche AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR.

bResponders at each visit are patients who had achieved and maintained HIV-1 RNA <400copies/mL without discontinuation by that visit.

Table 9. Outcomes of Randomized Treatment Through 48Weeks (Intent-to-Treat)

Outcome

EPIVIR 300mg

Once Daily

plus RETROVIR

plus Efavirenz

(n=278)

EPIVIR 150mg

Twice Daily

plus RETROVIR

plus Efavirenz

(n=276)

Responder a

67%

65%

Virologic failure b

8%

8%

Discontinued due to clinical progression

<1%

0%

Discontinued due to adverse events

6%

12%

Discontinued due to other reasons c

18%

14%

aAchieved confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA <400copies/mL and maintained through 48weeks.
bAchieved suppression but rebounded by Week 48, discontinued due to virologic failure, insufficient viral response according to the investigator, or never suppressed through Week 48.
cIncludes consent withdrawn, lost to followup, protocol violation, data outside the study-defined schedule, and randomized but never initiated treatment.

The proportions of patients with HIV-1 RNA <50copies/mL (via Roche Ultrasensitive assay) through Week 48 were 61% for patients receiving EPIVIR 300mg once daily and 63% for patients receiving EPIVIR 150mg twice daily. Median increases in CD4+ cell counts were 144cells/mm 3at Week 48 in patients receiving EPIVIR 300mg once daily and 146cells/mm 3for patients receiving EPIVIR 150mg twicedaily.

A small, randomized, open-label pilot study, EPV40001, was conducted in Thailand. A total of 159treatment-naive adult patients (male 32%, Asian 100%, median age 30years, baseline median CD4+ cell count 380cells/mm 3, median plasma HIV-1 RNA 4.8log 10copies/mL) were enrolled. Two of the treatment arms in this study provided a comparison between lamivudine 300mg once daily (n=54) and lamivudine 150mg twice daily (n=52), each in combination with zidovudine 300mg twice daily and abacavir 300mg twice daily. In intent-to-treat analyses of 48-week data, the proportions of patients with HIV-1 RNA below 400copies/mL were 61% (33/54) in the group randomized to once-daily lamivudine and 75% (39/52) in the group randomized to receive all 3 drugs twice daily; the proportions with HIV-1 RNA below 50copies/mL were 54% (29/54) in the once-daily lamivudine group and 67% (35/52) in the all-twice-daily group; and the median increases in CD4+ cell counts were 166cells/mm 3in the once-daily lamivudine group and 216cells/mm 3in the all-twice-daily group.

Clinical Endpoint Study:ACTG300 was a multi-center, randomized, double-blind study that provided for comparison of EPIVIR plus RETROVIR (zidovudine) with didanosine monotherapy. A total of 471symptomatic, HIV-1-infected therapy-naive (56days of antiretroviral therapy) pediatric patients were enrolled in these 2treatment arms. The median age was 2.7years (range: 6weeks to 14years), 58% were female, and 86% were non-Caucasian. The mean baseline CD4+ cell count was 868cells/mm 3(mean: 1,060cells/mm 3and range: 0 to 4,650cells/mm 3for patients 5years of age; mean: 419cells/mm 3and range: 0 to 1,555cells/mm 3for patients >5years of age) and the mean baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA was 5.0log 10copies/mL. The median duration on study was 10.1months for the patients receiving EPIVIR plus RETROVIR and 9.2months for patients receiving didanosine monotherapy. Results are summarized in Table10.

Table 10. Number of Patients (%) Reaching a Primary Clinical Endpoint (Disease Progression or Death)

Endpoint

EPIVIR plus RETROVIR

(n=236)

Didanosine

(n=235)

HIV disease progression or death (total)

15 (6.4%)

37 (15.7%)

Physical growth failure

7 (3.0%)

6 (2.6%)

Central nervous system deterioration

4 (1.7%)

12 (5.1%)

CDC Clinical Category C

2 (0.8%)

8 (3.4%)

Death

2 (0.8%)

11 (4.7%)

How supplied

EPIVIR Scored Tablets, 150mg

White, diamond-shaped, scored, film-coated tablets debossed with GX CJ7 on both sides.

Bottle of 60 tablets (NDC 0173-0470-01) with child-resistant closure.

EPIVIR Tablets, 300mg

Gray, modified diamond-shaped, film-coated tablets engraved with GX EJ7 on one side and plain on the reverse side.

Bottle of 30 tablets (NDC 0173-0714-00) with child-resistant closure.

Recommended Storage:

Store EPIVIR Tablets at 25C (77F); excursions permitted to 15 to 30C (59 to 86F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

EPIVIR Oral Solution, 10mg/mL

A clear, colorless to pale yellow, strawberry-banana-flavored liquid, contains 10mg of lamivudine in each 1mL.

Plastic bottle of 240mL (NDC 0173-0471-00) with child-resistant closure. This product does not require reconstitution.

Recommended Storage:

Store in tightly closed bottles at 25C (77F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Information for patients

Information About Therapy With EPIVIR:EPIVIR is not a cure for HIV-1 infection and patients may continue to experience illnesses associated with HIV-1 infection, including opportunistic infections. Patients should remain under the care of a physician when using EPIVIR. Patients should be advised that the use of EPIVIR has not been shown to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1 to others through sexual contact or blood contamination.

Patients should be advised that the long-term effects of EPIVIR are unknown at this time.

Patients should be advised of the importance of taking EPIVIR with combination therapy on a regular dosing schedule and to avoid missing doses.

EPIVIR should not be coadministered with drugs containing lamivudine or emtricitabine, including COMBIVIR (lamivudine/zidovudine) Tablets, EPZICOM (abacavir sulfate and lamivudine) Tablets, TRIZIVIR (abacavir sulfate, lamivudine, and zidovudine), ATRIPLA (efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir), EMTRIVA (emtricitabine) or TRUVADA (emtricitabine and tenofovir) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Redistribution/Accumulation of Body Fat:Patients should be informed that redistribution or accumulation of body fat may occur in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, including EPIVIR, and that the cause and long-term health effects of these conditions are not known at this time [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

Differences in Formulations of EPIVIR:Patients should be advised that EPIVIR Tablets and Oral Solution contain a higher dose of the same active ingredient (lamivudine) as EPIVIR-HBV Tablets and Oral Solution. If a decision is made to include lamivudine in the HIV-1 treatment regimen of a patient co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV, the formulation and dosage of lamivudine in EPIVIR (not EPIVIR-HBV) should be used [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Co-infection With HIV-1 and HBV:Patients co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV should be informed that deterioration of liver disease has occurred in some cases when treatment with lamivudine was discontinued. Patients should be advised to discuss any changes in regimen with their physician [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Risk of Pancreatitis:Parents or guardians should be advised to monitor pediatric patients for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

Sucrose Content of EPIVIR Oral Solution:Diabetic patients should be advised that each 15-mL dose of EPIVIR Oral Solution contains 3grams of sucrose [see Description (11)].

COMBIVIR, EPIVIR, EPIVIR-HBV, EPZICOM, and TRIZIVIR are registered trademarks of GlaxoSmithKline. ATRIPLA, EMTRIVA, and TRUVADA are trademarks of their respective owners and are not trademarks of GlaxoSmithKline. The makers of these brands are not affiliated with and do not endorse GlaxoSmithKline or its products.

GlaxoSmithKline
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

Manufactured under agreement from
Shire Pharmaceuticals Group plc
Basingstoke, UK

©2009, GlaxoSmithKline. All rights reserved.

Ingredients and appearance - Product information

Epivir tablet, film coated- Lamivudine

Product information

Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC: 24236-271
Route of Administration Oral

Active Ingredient/Active Moiety

Ingredient Name Strength
Lamivudine ( UNII: 2T8Q726O95)( Lamivudine - UNII: 2T8Q726O95 ) 150 mgin 1

Inactive Ingredients

Ingredient Name Code
Hypromelloses ( UNII: 3NXW29V3WO)
Magnesium stearate ( UNII: 70097M6I30)
Cellulose, microcrystalline ( UNII: OP1R32D61U)
Polyethylene glycols ( UNII: 3WJQ0SDW1A)
Polysorbate 80 ( UNII: 6OZP39ZG8H)
Sodium starch glycolate type a potato ( UNII: 5856J3G2A2)
Titanium dioxide ( UNII: 15FIX9V2JP)

Product Characteristics

Color white Score 2
Shape DIAMOND (TABLET, FILM COATED) Imprint Code GX;CJ7
Size 14 mm

Packaging

# Item Code Package Description Marketing Start Date
1 NDC: 24236-271-60 60 in 1 CANISTER 2013/03/15

Marketing Information

Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Territorial Authority Marketing Start Date
NDA NDA020564 USA 2013/03/15

Labeler - REMEDYREPACK INC.( 829572556)