Indomethacin capsule

Boxed warning section

Cardiovascular Risk

  • NSAIDS may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with Cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk (see ). WARNINGS
  • Indomethacin is contraindicated for the treatment of perioperative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see ). WARNINGS

Gastrointestinal Risk

  • NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events (see ). WARNINGS

Description

Indomethacin Capsules, USP for oral administration are provided in two dosage strengths which contain either 25 mg or 50 mg of indomethacin. Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory indole derivative designated chemically as 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1 -indole-3-acetic acid. H

The structural formula is:

C H ClNO M.W. 357.79 19 16 4

Indomethacin, USP is practically insoluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol. It has a pKa of 4.5 and is stable in neutral or slightly acidic media and decomposes in strong alkali.

Each capsule for oral administration contains 25 mg or 50 mg of indomethacin and the following inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium starch glycolate, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate. The hard gelatin shell consists of gelatin, titanium dioxide USP, FD & C Blue 1, D & C Yellow 10. The capsules are printed with black ink containing black iron oxide E172 dye.

Clinical pharmacology

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits antipyretic and analgesic properties. Its mode of action, like that of other anti-inflammatory drugs, is not known. However, its therapeutic action is not due to pituitary-adrenal stimulation.

Indomethacin is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis . Concentrations are reached during therapy which have been demonstrated to have an effect as well. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Moreover, prostaglandins are known to be among the mediators of inflammation. Since indomethacin is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues. in vitro in vivo

Indomethacin has been shown to be an effective anti-inflammatory agent, appropriate for long-term use in rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and osteoarthritis.

Indomethacin affords relief of symptoms; it does not alter the progressive course of the underlying disease.

Indomethacin suppresses inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis as demonstrated by relief of pain, and reduction of fever, swelling and tenderness. Improvement in patients treated with indomethacin for rheumatoid arthritis has been demonstrated by a reduction in joint swelling, average number of joints involved, and morning stiffness; by increased mobility as demonstrated by a decrease in walking time; and by improved functional capability as demonstrated by an increase in grip strength. Indomethacin may enable the reduction of steroid dosage in patients receiving steroids for the more severe forms of rheumatoid arthritis. In such instances the steroid dosage should be reduced slowly and the patients followed very closely for any possible adverse effects.

Indomethacin has been reported to diminish basal and CO stimulated cerebral blood flow in healthy volunteers following acute oral and intravenous administration. In one study, after one week of treatment with orally administered indomethacin, this effect on basal cerebral blood flow had disappeared. The clinical significance of this effect has not been established. 2

Indomethacin capsules have been found effective in relieving the pain, reducing the fever, swelling, redness, and tenderness of acute gouty arthritis (see ). INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Following single oral doses of indomethacin capsules 25 mg or 50 mg, indomethacin is readily absorbed, attaining peak plasma concentrations of about 1 and 2 mcg/mL, respectively, at about 2 hours. Orally administered indomethacin capsules are virtually 100% bioavailable, with 90% of the dose absorbed within 4 hours. A single 50 mg dose of indomethacin oral suspension was found to be bioequivalent to a 50 mg indomethacin capsule when each was administered with food.

Indomethacin is eliminated via renal excretion, metabolism, and biliary excretion. Indomethacin undergoes appreciable enterohepatic circulation. The mean half-life of indomethacin is estimated to be about 4.5 hours. With a typical therapeutic regimen of 25 mg or 50 mg t.i.d., the steady-state plasma concentrations of indomethacin are an average 1.4 times those following the first dose.

Indomethacin exists in the plasma as the parent drug and its desmethyl, desbenzoyl, and desmethyl-desbenzoyl metabolites, all in the unconjugated form. About 60 % of an oral dosage is recovered in urine as drug and metabolites (26 % as indomethacin and its glucuronide), and 33 % is recovered in feces (1.5 % as indomethacin).

About 99% of indomethacin is bound to protein in plasma over the expected range of therapeutic plasma concentrations. Indomethacin has been found to cross the blood-brain barrier and the placenta.

Indications and usage

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of indomethacin capsules and other treatment options before deciding to use indomethacin. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see ). WARNINGS

Indomethacin Capsule, USP has been found effective in active stages of the following:

  1. Moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease.
  2. Moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis.
  3. Moderate to severe osteoarthritis.
  4. Acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis).
  5. Acute gouty arthritis.

Contraindications

Indomethacin Capsule, USP is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to indomethacin or the excipients (see ). DESCRIPTION

Indomethacin Capsule, USP should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see , and ). WARNINGS: Anaphylactic/Anaphylactoid Reactions PRECAUTIONS: General: Preexisting Asthma

Indomethacin Capsule, USP is contraindicated for the treatment of perioperative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see ). WARNINGS

Warnings

Precautions

General

Indomethacin cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.

The pharmacological activity of indomethacin in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.

Hepatic Effects

Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs, including indomethacin. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported.

A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test values has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with indomethacin. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), indomethacin should be discontinued.

Hematological Effects

Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including indomethacin. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including indomethacin, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia.

NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving indomethacin who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored.

Adverse reactions

The adverse reactions for indomethacin capsules listed in the following table have been arranged into two groups: (1) incidence greater than 1%; and (2) incidence less than 1%. The incidence for group (1) was obtained from 33 double-blind controlled clinical trials reported in the literature (1,092 patients). The incidence for group (2) was based on reports in clinical trials, in the literature, and on voluntary reports since marketing. The probability of a causal relationship exists between indomethacin and these adverse reactions, some of which have been reported only rarely.

Incidence greater than 1%

nausea with or without vomiting dyspepsia (including indigestion, heartburn and epigastric pain) GASTROINTESTINAL
1
1

Diarrhea abdominal distress or pain constipation

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

headache (11.7%) dizziness vertigo somnolence depression and fatigue (including malaise and listlessness)
1


tinnitus SPECIAL SENSES

none CARDIOVASCULAR

none METABOLIC

none INTEGUMENTARY

none HEMATOLOGIC

none HYPERSENSITIVITY

none GENITOURINARY

none MISCELLANEOUS

________________________________________

1 Reactions occurring in 3% to 9% of patients treated with indomethacin. (Those reactions occurring in less than 3% of the patients are unmarked.)

Incidence less than 1%

anorexia bloating (includes distention) flatulence peptic ulcer gastroenteritis rectal bleeding proctitis single or multiple ulcerations, including perforation and hemorrhage of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum or small and large intestines intestinal ulceration associated with stenosis and obstruction gastrointestinal bleeding without obvious ulcer formation and perforation of preexisting sigmoid lesions (diverticulum, carcinoma, etc.) development of ulcerative colitis and regional ileitis ulcerative stomatitis toxic hepatitis and jaundice (some fatal cases have been reported) intestinal strictures (diaphragms) GASTROINTESTINAL











CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

anxiety (includes nervousness) muscle weakness involuntary muscle movements insomnia muzziness psychic disturbances including psychotic episodes mental confusion drowsiness light-headedness syncope paresthesia aggravation of epilepsy and parkinsonism depersonalization coma peripheral neuropathy convulsions dysarthria















SPECIAL SENSES

ocular-corneal deposits and retinal disturbances, including those of the macula, have been reported in some patients on prolonged therapy with indomethacin

blurred vision diplopia hearing disturbances, deafness

CARDIOVASCULAR

congestive heart failure hypertension hypotension tachycardia chest pain arrhythmia; palpitations




edema weight gain fluid retention flushing or sweating hyperglycemia glycosuria hyperkalemia METABOLIC






pruritus rash; urticaria petechiae or ecchymosis exfoliative dermatitis erythema nodosum loss of hair Stevens-Johnson Syndrome erythema multiforme toxic epidermal necrolysis INTEGUMENTARY








leucopenia bone marrow depression anemia secondary to obvious or occult gastrointestinal bleeding aplastic anemia hemolytic anemia agranulocytosis thrombocytopenic purpura disseminated intravascular coagulation HEMATOLOGIC







acute anaphylaxis acute respiratory distress rapid fall in blood pressure resembling a shock-like state angioedema dyspnea asthma purpura angiitis pulmonary edema fever HYPERSENSITIVITY









GENITOURINARY

hematuria vaginal bleeding proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, interstitial nephritis BUN elevation renal insufficiency, including renal failure



epistaxis breast changes, including enlargement and tenderness, or gynecomastia MISCELLANEOUS

Causal Relationship Unknown

Other reactions have been reported but occurred under circumstances where a causal relationship could not be established. However, in these rarely reported events, the possibility cannot be excluded. Therefore, these observations are being listed to serve as alerting information to physicians:

thrombophlebitis Cardiovascular:

Although there have been several reports of leukemia, the supporting information is weak. Hematologic:

urinary frequency Genitourinary:

A rare occurrence of fulminant necrotizing fasciitis, particularly in association with Group A -hemolytic streptococcus, has been described in persons treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, including indomethacin, sometimes with fatal outcome (see also ). PRECAUTIONS: General

Overdosage

The following symptoms may be observed following overdosage: nausea, vomiting, intense headache, dizziness, mental confusion, disorientation, or lethargy. There have been reports of paresthesias, numbness and convulsions.

Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. The stomach should be emptied as quickly as possible if the ingestion is recent. If vomiting has not occurred spontaneously, the patient should be induced to vomit with syrup of ipecac. If the patient is unable to vomit, gastric lavage should be performed. Once the stomach has been emptied, 25 g or 50 g of activated charcoal may be given. Depending on the condition of the patient, close medical observation and nursing care may be required. The patient should be followed for several days because gastrointestinal ulceration and hemorrhage have been reported as adverse reactions of indomethacin. Use of antacids may be helpful.

The oral LD50 of indomethacin in mice and rats (based on 14 day mortality response) was 50 and 12 mg/kg, respectively.

Dosage and administration

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of indomethacin and other treatment options before deciding to use indomethacin. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see ). WARNINGS

After observing the response to initial therapy with indomethacin, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient's needs.

Indomethacin is available as 25 mg and 50 mg capsules.

Adverse reactions appear to correlate with the size of the dose of indomethacin in most patients but not all. Therefore, every effort should be made to determine the smallest effective dosage for the individual patient.

Pediatric Use

Indomethacin ordinarily should not be prescribed for pediatric patients 14 years of age and under (see ). WARNINGS

Adult Use

Dosage Recommendations for Active Stages of the Following:

  1. Moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease; moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis; and moderate to severe osteoarthritis. Suggested Dosage: Indomethacin capsules 25 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d. If this is well tolerated, increase the daily dosage by 25 mg or by 50 mg, if required by continuing symptoms, at weekly intervals until a satisfactory response is obtained or until a total daily dose of 150 mg to 200 mg is reached. DOSES ABOVE THIS AMOUNT GENERALLY DO NOT INCREASE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DRUG.

    In patients who have persistent night pain and/or morning stiffness, the giving of a large portion, up to a maximum of 100 mg, of the total daily dose at bedtime may be helpful in affording relief. The total daily dose should not exceed 200 mg. In acute flares of chronic rheumatoid arthritis, it may be necessary to increase the dosage by 25 mg or, if required, by 50 mg daily.

    If minor adverse effects develop as the dosage is increased, reduce the dosage rapidly to a tolerated dose and OBSERVE THE PATIENT CLOSELY.

    If severe adverse reactions occur, STOP THE DRUG. After the acute phase of the disease is under control, an attempt to reduce the daily dose should be made repeatedly until the patient is receiving the smallest effective dose or the drug is discontinued.

    Careful instructions to, and observations of, the individual patient are essential to the prevention of serious, irreversible, including fatal, adverse reactions.

    As advancing years appear to increase the possibility of adverse reactions, indomethacin should be used with greater care in the elderly (see ). PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use

  2. Acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis). Initial Dose: 75 mg to 150 mg daily in 3 or 4 divided doses. The drug should be discontinued after the signs and symptoms of inflammation have been controlled for several days. The usual course of therapy is 7 to 14 days
  3. Acute gouty arthritis. Suggested Dosage: Indomethacin capsules 50 mg t.i.d. until pain is tolerable. The dose should then be rapidly reduced to complete cessation of the drug. Definite relief of pain has been reported within 2 to 4 hours. Tenderness and heat usually subside in 24 to 36 hours, and swelling gradually disappears in 3 to 5 days.

How supplied

NDC:54569-0275-0 in a BOTTLE of 21 CAPSULES

NDC:54569-0275-1 in a BOTTLE of 30 CAPSULES

NDC:54569-0275-3 in a BOTTLE of 90 CAPSULES

NDC:54569-0275-5 in a BOTTLE of 15 CAPSULES

Spl medguide section

INDOMETHACIN CAPSULES USP

Medication Guide for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

(See the end of this Medication Guide for a list of prescription NSAID medicines.)

What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

NSAID medicines may increase the chance of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This chance increases:

  • with longer use of NSAID medicines
  • in people who have heart disease

NSAID medicines should never be used right before or after a heart surgery called a "coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)."

NSAID medicines can cause ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines at any time during treatment. Ulcers and bleeding:

  • can happen without warning symptoms
  • may cause death

The chance of a person getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with:

  • taking medicines called "corticosteroids" and "anticoagulants"
  • longer use
  • smoking
  • drinking alcohol
  • older age
  • having poor health

NSAID medicines should only be used:

  • exactly as prescribed
  • at the lowest dose possible for your treatment
  • for the shortest time needed

What are Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

NSAID medicines are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as:

  • different types of arthritis
  • menstrual cramps and other types of short-term pain

Who should not take a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)?

Do not take an NSAID medicine:

  • if you had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or any other NSAID medicine
  • for pain right before or after heart bypass surgery

Tell your healthcare provider:

  • about all of your medical conditions.
  • about all of the medicines you take. NSAIDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Keep a list of your medicines to show to your healthcare provider and pharmacist.
  • if you are pregnant. NSAID medicines should not be used by pregnant women late in their pregnancy.
  • if you are breastfeeding. Talk to your doctor.

What are the possible side effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

serious side effects include: Other side effects include:
  • heart attack
  • stroke
  • high blood pressure
  • heart failure from body swelling (fluid Retension)
  • kidney problems including kidney failure
  • bleeding and ulcers in the stomach and intestine
  • low red blood cells (anemia)
  • life-threatening skin reactions
  • life-threatening allergic reactions
  • liver problems including liver failure
  • asthma attacks in people who have asthma
  • stomach pain
  • constipation
  • diarrhea
  • gas
  • heartburn
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • dizziness

Get emergency help right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • shortness of breath or trouble breathing
  • chest pain
  • weakness in one part or side of your body
  • slurred speech
  • swelling of the face or throat

Stop your NSAID medicine and call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • nausea
  • more tired or weaker than usual
  • itching
  • your skin or eyes look yellow
  • stomach pain
  • flu-like symptoms
  • vomit blood
  • there is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky like tar
  • unusual weight gain
  • skin rash or blisters with fever
  • swelling of the arms and legs, hands and feet

These are not all the side effects with NSAID medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist for more information about NSAID medicines. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Other information about Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

Aspirin is an NSAID medicine but it does not increase the chance of a heart attack.Aspirin can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, and intestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and intestines.

Some of these NSAID medicines are sold in lower doses without a prescription (over-the-counter). Talk to your healthcare provider before using over-the-counter NSAIDs for more than 10 days.

NSAID medicines that need a prescription

Celecoxib Celebrex
Diclofenac Cataflam, Voltaren, Arthrotec (combined with misoprostol)
Diflunisal Dolobid
Etodolac Lodine, Lodine XL
Fenoprofen Nalfon, Nalfon 200
Flurbiprofen Ansaid
Ibuprofen Motrin, Tab-Profen, Vicoprofen( (combined with hydrocodone), Combunox (combined with oxycodone)
Indomethacin Indocin, Indocin SR, Indo-Lemmon, Indomethagan
Ketoprofen Oruvail
Ketorolac Toradol
MefenamicAcid Ponstel
Meloxicam Mobic
Nabumetone Relafen
Naproxen Naprosyn, Anaprox, Anaprox DS, EC-Naprosyn, Naprelan, Naprapac (copackaged with lansoprazole)
Oxaprozin Daypro
Piroxicam Feldene
Sulindac Clinoril
Tolmetin Tolectin, Tolectin DS, Tolectin 600

Vicoprofen contains the same dose of ibuprofen as over-the-counter (OTC) NSAIDs, and is usually used for less than 10 days to treat pain. The OTC NSAIDS label warns that long term continuous use may increase the risk of heart attack or stroke. *

This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Manufactured for: Camber Pharmaceuticals, Inc Piscataway, NJ 08854

By: Hetero Labs Limited Jeedimetla, Hyderabad-500 055, India.

Ingredients and appearance - Product information

Indomethacin capsule- Indomethacin

Product information

Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC: 54569-0275
Route of Administration Oral

Active Ingredient/Active Moiety

Ingredient Name Strength
Indomethacin ( UNII: XXE1CET956)( Indomethacin - UNII: XXE1CET956 ) 50 mgin 1

Inactive Ingredients

Ingredient Name Code
Lactose monohydrate ( UNII: EWQ57Q8I5X)
Sodium starch glycolate type a potato ( UNII: 5856J3G2A2)
Sodium lauryl sulfate ( UNII: 368GB5141J)
Silicon dioxide ( UNII: ETJ7Z6XBU4)
Magnesium stearate ( UNII: 70097M6I30)
Gelatin ( UNII: 2G86QN327L)
Titanium dioxide ( UNII: 15FIX9V2JP)
Fd&c blue no. 1 ( UNII: H3R47K3TBD)
D&c yellow no. 10 ( UNII: 35SW5USQ3G)
Ferrosoferric oxide ( UNII: XM0M87F357)

Product Characteristics

Color GREEN (light green) Imprint Code H;104
Score 1 Size 19 mm
Shape CAPSULE

Marketing Information

Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Territorial Authority Marketing Start Date
ANDA ANDA091240 USA

Labeler - A-S Medication Solutions( 830016429)

Establishment

Name ID/FEI Business Operations
A-S Medication Solutions 830016429 RELABEL( 54569-0275), REPACK( 54569-0275)

Indomethacin capsule